Wednesday, March 12, 2008

Gift For Loss Of A Mother

The Gringos Also Loves

Mario Maestri

From the 18th century, on both banks of the Plata, has developed a truly transnational civilization based on pastoral production, and landed charqueadores. Centered in the southern territories, and singled out for emphasis slave, Rio Grande Luso-Brazilian born and developed as an integral part of this huge universe Pampa.

Since 1824, the landless poor peasants of German settled in the foothills of the Serra Gaucha, not far from the southern capital. Especially since the new waves of immigrants in Italy, 1875, and Polish, in 1889-90, the gap structure in the peasant landowner South Rio Grande has expanded and consolidated. [1] The distribution

parcel of land in pastoral areas unfit for plantation, in the first free, funded from 1850-4, was the most ambitious reform of the landholding structure of land held in Brazil today. The natives, mestizos, free, etc. poor Brazilians. were kept outside this property democratization.

Labor familiar

The abundance of land and proximity to markets gave rise to solid peasant community, for decades, met vigorous territorial expansion and population. The many children of immigrant farmers, more than mouths to feed, were working for arms. Very soon, this human tide crossed the border toward the Rio Grande west of Santa Catarina, Parana, Mato Grosso, Paraguay's own, in search of land to fruit.

Population growth and expansion policultora colonial mercantile family and supported a dynamic commercial activity, craft and industrial manufacturing. The new socio-economic landscape gave rise to shift, the first economic, then political heart of the pampas of Rio Grande Southern to the center and the north-south Rio Grande.

In Rio Grande, the republican insurrection of November 15, 1889 did not consolidate the power of shepherd-oligarchic. Single case in Brazil, supported the emergence of a new block owner who expressed the needs of emerging socio-economic forces - polyculture, trade, etc.. colonial, capitalist agriculture, manufacturing, etc.. Immigration colonial peasant radically changed the profile of the Rio Grande, preventing him from becoming, at best, in a Portuguese speaking Uruguay, at worst a huge Bage! [2]

History and myth

Over time, successes of goals, facts metamorphose into historical events that require reconstitution and explanation. In 1925, the fiftieth anniversary of Italian immigrants in Rio Grande do Sul had uniquely favorable conditions for the first systematic historical reconstruction of those successes, already consolidated.

The reading of the past is never a cold and neutral pursuit of the essence of bygone events. Rather, it is natural stage of confrontation and expression of social contradictions of the present. The story is written with the eye stuck in the past and feet nailed to the present. Therefore, it is also powerful testimony of those who produced it.

From 1914 to 1918, World War I ness enabled the Region participated in Italian Colonial industrial impulse brought about by the militarization of the industry in Europe and North America. The industrial expansion partially suppressed the regional crafts. In 1925, the social and economic hegemony in the RCI was already an iron fist in the hands of commercial and industrial capital of the region. [3]

natural conditions

The first interpretations of the past aimed mainly Italian colonial elites to integrate the Italian-Gaucho in the context of representations of past southerner, then literally dominated by narratives-pastoralist landowners would receive in 1927, the first systematic sociological work of Salis Goulart, The formation of Rio Grande do Sul [4]

The political conditions were propitious for such. In 1923, the Republican Party Riograndense had secured its second major political-military victory over the opposition Liberal-pastoral, largely due to the support of colonial society. [5] borgismo supported the creation of reports apologetic about the work on small farms and the white immigrant in Rio Grande do Sul, in deep harmony with the regional autonomy that advocated and pushed. The

Italian State also established the process of producing the first systematic narrative about colonial history. In 1922, fascism had risen to head the government by the hand of Victor Emmanuel III, and completed the crisis opened by the assassination in June 1924, the Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti, require, in late 1926, the full dictatorship over the peninsula. [6]

Work of the Latin race

In this general context, the presentation of immigration as a powerful movement of civilization brought about by the excellence and dynamism of the Latin race, broadcast by Italian state diplomacy since the beginning of the great immigration was taken up and enhanced by the fascist diplomacy in the next decade, would develop an ambitious project to monitor immigration. In "1925, during the First Congress of Fascio Abroad, Mussolini" will call "to defend the immigrants 'Italian identity' and that there was a 40 fasci held in Brazil." [7] First

general interpretation of the southern migration, the album "cinquantenario nello stato della colonizzazione Italian del Rio Grande del Sud [8] opens with a brief greeting signed on June 11, 1925 in Rome by Benito Mussolini: "The noble pride that elevates your souls, while heaven for contemplating the result of prolonged and persistent fatigue, I envision the sign of noble lineage who printed an inextinguishable feature in the history of Peoples. "[9]

In the same sense and in the same publication, Celeste Gobat proposes in the opening pages of his long article on" The settler and his Italian contribution to the development of industry Rio Grande ":" Brazil could not, of course, choose the best immigrants, is the characteristic of workers and savers grips, is respect for the sovereign authorities [...]." [10]

Race and religion

the same album, the intrinsic excellence of the Italian immigrant was recorded Article ribaldry racist Francisco Leonardo Truda, "With this admirable quality of physical and moral, with its strong ability to work, tenacity and intelligent enterprise, not surprising that the Italian settlers have been unable, in the economic , a superb work, ensuring for himself and his descendants an enviable prosperity and giving the land that hosts a very high contribution to progress. " [11]

Besides the emphasis on the natural quality of the settler italics stands out in the commemorative publication ample space given to the Catholic clergy in the narrative of the colonial saga under construction. After a "proem" and an article on "The Italians and the republic of Piratini" by Mansueto Bernardi, the following three tests, through more than 150 pages, deal with the relations between Church and State in the Italian colonization. So, churches, schools, seminaries, chapels and clerical newspapers were the most important cultural network, political and ideological mainly rural Italian-gaucho. [12]

Previous to the assault of the black shirts to power, the growing convergence between fascism and the Vatican would, in February 1929, the Lateran Concordat of which, among other important privileges, became Roman Catholicism in religion State, ending the secularity of the Italian nation-state, founded in 1870. The official narrative construction fused without contradictions in the discourses on the intrinsic excellence of the immigrant and the central role of the Church in the colonial process and success.

Diplomacy black

Italy and colonial community paid dearly for their attempt to misuse the immigration policy by fascism. The entry of Brazil in the World War against the Axis entailed a profound disruption of intimate and multiple contacts between Italy and the Rio Grande in Rio Grande do Sul, located mainly in the 1930s. [13]

In fact, since 1930, the developmental project headed by Getúlio Vargas was strongly mobilized by the formation of an internal market for domestic industry, centered in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Since 1937, the Estado Novo increasingly stifle the autonomy of the state and national traits of any kind. [14] This

true invention of Brazil and Brazilianness gave through the repression of authoritarian regional autonomy and national peculiarities. Especially after the severance of diplomatic relations between Brazil and Italy and Germany, in early 1941, schools, newspapers, associations, etc.. Italics have been repressed. It was forbidden also that if he spoke publicly in the languages \u200b\u200bof the Axis powers.

long hiatus

In the new political context, preference for national economic and industrial growth in travel, commercial and industrial elites Italian-Gaucho increasingly market-oriented national, abandoned without hesitation rashes and the black flag Mussolinian Fascist party and the yellow-green flag Vargas and the League of National Defense. [15]

In 1950, the celebrations of 75 years of immigration were recorded in Commemorative album and Documentary History of the city of Caxias do Sul, written in Portuguese. [16] Presenting the latest work, Duminiense Ali highlights the "creative power of the colonizers [...], the tenacity and perseverance in work and unshakeable faith" that made "this great city flourish," unfolding day by day to keep pace with daily work, in a dizzying ascent toward the growing strength for the future "[17]

Only five years after the conclusion of the conflict in full resumption of the national-developmentalist thrust that would allow the presidential victory of Getulio Vargas, 3 October 1950, the movement of reflection on the Italian colonial past, stopped when the nationalization policy of the Estado Novo did not know return significantly, staying for a quarter century near silence and analytical literature on this reality.

Explosive resumed

In 1975, when he published his important work, Italian and Gauchos: the pioneer years of Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, to which we refer below, Thales de Azevedo noted the poverty of the bibliography on the southern migration, "daring me to entertain the idea that that process has still not enough place in the historiography Rio Grande, for his extraordinary importance, deserves and is demanding [...]." True forerunner, investigating Thales de Azevedo the subject since the late 1950s. [18] Only

Bahian anthropologist recorded the profound lack bibliographic broke out in Rio Grande do Sul important movement of research into the roots of Italian-gauchos. Although the galvanizing factor in this process has been unquestionably the celebrations of 100 years of Italian colonization in the Rio Grande, the ultimate reasons of the phenomena have not yet been explained satisfactorily.

In 1974, he made ten years the country was under military order, six of them packed the growth brought about by the "Brazilian Miracle", which the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie Italian-gaucho participated prominently. Ie strengthened, regional elites Italian descent were now more than ever, able to write his saga. After the disaster of Garrastazu Medici reign, from 1970 to 1973, Ernesto Geisel took over in 1974, the presidency. The two generals were respectively descendants of Italian and German immigrants. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brizola, Meneghetti, Peracchi proved that the regional power had been long overrun by the descendants of poor immigrants fortunate, especially italics.

Monographs winning

What is certain is that the celebration of the Sesquicentennial of the German Colonization Colonization and centennial Italian opportunity contests, publications, scientific meetings, etc.. that provided a strong resumption of studies on immigration in general and especially on the last Italian-gaucho. Integral part of that movement, Luis Alberto De Boni recalled twenty years later, the attraction exerted upon the conclusion that the researchers. On occasion, reiterated also the then poverty literature on immigration and Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul [19]

Back then, in order to "promote research on the contribution of different ethnicities here [sic] rooted to work for the common material and spiritual greatness Brazil, "the government of New South Wales imposed a" Contest of Literature Biennium of Colonization and Immigration 1974 / 5, "and published a collection of the same name" Burbot Colonization and Immigration [State Decree No. 22783 of 7 November 1973] [20].

Among the many awards and volumes published by this initiative, unquestionably distinguished themselves two books on Italian immigration: the Italian and Gauchos: the pioneer years of Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, Thales de Azevedo and The Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul: Implications economic, political and cultural sociologist and the former Capuchin Olivio Manfroi [21].

Generation 1975

A first systematic study of the dialects Italo-gauchos, presented by Mary Vitalina Frose and Ciro Mioranza-Italian immigration in northeastern Rio Grande do Sul: the formation and evolution an Italo-Brazilian community, also received honorable mention in the "Letters exhibition Burbot Colonization and Immigration", being published later in 1975. Both authors concluded the following further work on the dialects breathless italics. [22] In the same year, the Capuchin friar Rovílio Costa published in Italian Immigration Rio Grande do Sul: life, customs and traditions, first honorable mention in the same competition. The work would follow this fruitful production on various aspects of the issue. [23]

In Caxias do Sul, in July 1975 and October 1976, were the I and II boards Studies Italo-Brazilians had their proceedings published in 1979 - Italian Immigration: Studies. Proceedings of the I and II boards Italo-Brazilian Studies in 1975 and 1976. [24] participated in the two events held at the University of Caxias do Sul social scientists who would stand out in the decades following the investigations Italian-Gaucho: Ciro Mioranza, Piazza Cleodes Ribeiro, Jose Clemente Pozenato, Loraine Slomp Giron, Luis A. Boni, Olivio Manfroi, Rovílio Costa, Thales de Azevedo, Maria Vitaliano Frose.

The works of Thales de Azevedo and Oliver Manfroi founders were true classics of the Italian-renaissance studies gauchos. However, unequal influence exerted in the studies and scholars who followed. Second prize in the Monograph on the Italian Immigration in the Contest of Literature "Burbot Colonization and Immigration," The Italian colonization in the RS, Oliver Manfroi, met academic success and windscreen which the academic study of Thales de Azevedo, winner event, ever enjoyed.

Legitimizing unequal

The Italian colonization in the RS, Oliver Manfroi, was originally a doctoral thesis in sociology, defended at the Sorbonne in France in 1973. The work was translated into Portuguese, especially to the contest of the Biennium. Was reviewing the typed copy of the text of your friend Friar Rovílio became interested in the subject. [25] The theory was, therefore, work on previous studies to the explosion of Italian-gauchos 1975. Taken from Weber's analytical assumptions, the main thesis defended the central character of the Catholic religion in the success of Italian immigration in Brazil.

In the Preface of this work, Italic Marcon synthesized proposition: "[...] the Catholic Religion was safe and that the ultimate bulwark peninsular settlers went out to save their own cultural identity. Thank she managed to win all the trauma of emigration, filling the void found in the new adopted country and structuring a time and a congenial space, generating a unique civilization Italian-South Rio Grande. " [26]

In his magnificent work, after the introductory chapters, Manfroi tells the Italian immigration as a kind of modern epic in which the colonists eventually won difficulties abysmal - the trip in Italy, crossing the sinister, abandonment and isolation in the forests, the difficult start, etc.. - Due to his willingness to work, galvanized by a deep religious faith. The communal harmony and family, always cemented by religion, are also strongly emphasized.

Religion demiurgic

"God, the Virgin Mary and the Saints were the mainstay and refuge of Italian immigrants, during the trip and the first years of its establishment in the RS. Individual prayer in difficult times, prayer family in the working forest, Sunday Liturgy Colonial line were a constant feature of the Italian settlers. "[27]

Reading Olivio Manfroi migratory movement of italics was not arbitrary construction. As we have seen, its essential analytical components - the Italian quality and importance of religion in the colonial phenomenon - were already in the pioneering work on this reality.

Moreover, the great difficulties proposals were not invented. They existed, really, especially in the early days, constituting an essential part of the memory of immigration. The construction of a new life in south Brazil's required, always working very hard. Religion and the priest were the central elements of the colonial phenomenon.

The history and myth

Taking the essence and natural appearance for the general, Olivio Manfroi simplified analyzed phenomena. Accidents and fatalities at the crossing, the difficulties of establishing the first settlements, the lack of support and assistance of the authorities, the isolation and the danger of forests, etc.. were powerfully extreme and widespread.

Above all, the author in his work dismissed the importance of the central grant of land and proximity to markets as key reasons for success - always on - the immigration process, presented to the contrary as a result of the intrinsic quality of the settler, cemented by unwavering religious faith.

The default procedure proposed by Oliver Manfroi was reinforced by successive studies, often stripped of the elegance and complexity of analytical work paradigm. Emphasizing ad nauseam in the natural disposition of the settler to success, offering you beatific faith and morals, denied on the facts of the complexity of real history, to ignore and stifle their contradictions, their blunders, their failures, their miseries and their magnitudes.

Hero colonial

Many of these successive interpretations produced ethnicist narratives and unapologetic about excellence and racial and ethnic superiority of Italian, especially in relation to communities of indigenous, mestizo, black African, etc.. These reports were supported, implicitly or explicitly, in view of the alleged success of all Italian-gauchos, there would have failed where other ethnic communities, less allotted. [28]

In 1987, an ideologue of the Veneto about his proposed city: "[...] we're different: we are all white [sic] and literate, there are no beggars and all have their permanent job. And not just in the village but also within the district, very few families who are not have running water, radio, TV, fridge and freezer! We're no different or [sic]? However, still missing something. Our culture Venetian - [...]- has suffered a high wear rate and has not been adequately replaced. There was a blending of customs, fortunately not yet in the blood [sic]. "[29]

precisely to sustain the myth of an ethnic predestination to economic success and social narratives apologetic historiography of ethnic purge contradiction and failure of his stories , which usually only address the creation and consolidation of colonial society. Therefore, there story is the crisis and the frustration of playing the farming community before the landlord possession of the land, which led to thousands of Italian descent has proletarianised in the cities or arrancharem under the awning of the camps of black borders southern fringes of the roads, in the harsh fight for a piece of land to work. [30]

Historiography ethnic

Strand ethnic historiography has had huge success. From this perspective, were conducted and published a multitude of studies of history and historiography windshield on municipal issues, family, urban, industrial, etc.. Today there are few communities colonial Italian-Gaucho without an attempt at interpretation or a historical documentary survey.

Strong outside of academic institutions and graduate programs in history, the Italian-colonial studies of historical vocation are possibly the most dynamic area of \u200b\u200bliterature in Rio Grande do Sul particular, are "the unassuming fruit of the work of people without higher education, or, when formed [...], of individuals who are "not" historians. "[31] He was pivotal in this worthy effort to bibliographic Publisher EST, under the tireless animation frei Rovílio Costa during years backed by the philosopher and social scientist Louis A. Boni.

Disenchant myth

Since the beginning of this literature explosion in 1975, a part revisionist historiography sought to describe the colonial history of Italian-gaucho from its real deep contradictions in his opposition to the proposals and the eternal structural-historical harmony. These readings sought to enrich the analytical accounts of the past through the disenchantment of the universe and the mythic narrative.

Elements of this proposal were already in the valuable study of Constantine Ianni, Men without peace: conflict and Backstage of Italian immigration [32] in the studies cited by Thales de Azevedo and Vitalina Frose; in analysis of Luis A. Boni, the work of José dos Santos VT, etc. [33].

Some paradigmatic work stood out in this production. In 1981, Valentine had Lazzarotto business success Italo-gaucho as a result of ruthless exploitation of a proletariat still regional economic and ideologically linked to the smallholding, in his magnificent work Poor builders of wealth. [34]

Fiction and reality

In 1984, the reading of immigration met leap forward with the novel Quatrilho history of José Clemente Pozenato, pervasive socio-literary analysis of the contradictions and the dissolution of colonial society. The operation of the commercial capital and settler women and young people by the patriarchs, the hardiness of interpersonal relations, etc.. are one of many structural phenomena colonial dissected by fictional works. [35]

In 1994, Loraine Slomp Giron has advanced substantially in the political and ideological analysis of the Italian Colonial Region with its study of Shadows littorio: fascism in Rio Grande do Sul, where he reveals the sense of commitment of the urban bourgeoisie multitudinous Italian- Gaucho with fascism before World War II

World [36].

In 2002, Parlano Eppur si! Etude d'un cas diachronique de contact linguistique dans le Rio Grande do Sul [Bresil], the Italian linguist Florence Carboni discussed thoroughly in terms of socio-linguistic and historical, the dynamics and deep social and linguistic reasons of increasing loss of Italic dialects in Rio Grande do Sul [37]

New looks

Training Program Graduate in History from the University of Passo Fundo, in 1999, raised that investigations about the history of Italian immigration, begun in the same revisionist perspective that culminated in the tables of the research Land Use and Social Movements of the program.

In 2001, in The Law of silence: repression and nationalization in New State Guaporé, Claudia Mara Sganzerla unveiled historical scenarios in contradiction with the oral tradition and literature of a strong police repression, when the campaign nationalizing the Estado Novo, wrongly blamed for End of the Italic dialects in the region. [38]

In 2002, Ulysses va in America: history, historiography and myths of immigration Italian in Rio Grande do Sul [1875-1914], Dils Piccin Cortese identified and analyzed the major historiographical myths of Italian immigration, discussing the reasons and the deep meanings of the statements on mortality during the crossing, the isolation of the settlers in the forests, the threat of wild beasts and savages, etc.. [39]

Demography and sexuality and

From 2000 to 2002, also in the frame of the preparation of dissertation for the degree of master in history, Ismael Vanini undertook research on demography and natural sexuality Italian-colonial population of Rio Grande do Sul in the city that bore the name of his grandfather, the first and most prosperous merchant in the region.

The initial object of his research was to inquire with the main stage the municipality of Vanini, the profound consequences of preaching and sexofóbica pronatalist traditionally undertaken by the Catholic clergy, Apostolic and Roman throughout the Region Italian Colonial.

Reflection on the falling birthrate of RCI, from the year 1960, Ishmael brought to mind the deep gap between the formal acceptance by the community-Italian state, preaching and religious guidance, and practical objective standards clear behavioral variance with those guidelines.

The voice of the protagonists

To shed light on the phenomenon, Ismael dived into archival documentation and interviewed elderly of both sexes who approached him with generosity, longing and resentment contexts and realities that determine the sex life and loving, Vanini, when they were young.

Upon investigation, Ismael ripped the veil of hagiographic narratives and beatific to unveil, by addition of official morality, strongly determined by religious discourse commonly observed only in form, complex interpersonal exchanges born and rooted for certain practices colonial farmers.

reading the dissertation of Ishmael Vanini - Sex, wine and the devil: demography and sexuality in Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul Vanini. 1906-1970 - who had the privilege to guide, intended for publication next month, the UPF by Publisher shall entitle the reader to unexpected and pleasant surprises.

Setemin and Messalina

Among the unexpected revelations of Ishmael stands almost certainly the normality with which the young couple gave birth firstborn infants, usually plump and healthy, jokingly dubbed by the community of setemin - seven months. There will be less

surprise the reader when faced with lewd Messalinas Colonial presented by Ishmael, in paddocks, barns and parrerais for monetary gifts, small gifts or the love of art, they gave sexual favors, to the dismay of their wives husbands' adultery.

This and other phenomena analyzed born and framed by deep socio-economic determinations of peasant society, suggest sexual freedom on significantly broader than the commonly proposed. Join the Quatrilho historical novel, inspired by the successes occurring in line Tapera inside of Gramado in 1907, and supported by a deep and reflected the author's knowledge about the colonial region, has corroborated and extended narratives by historical research of Ishmael. [40]

Ignorance and suffering

Ishmael also reveals painful situation, as the dire consequences of children born of incestuous exchange between brothers, the author points out largely as a byproduct of sexual misinformation, in which young people were maintained even beyond the wedding aspect also discussed by Ishmael.

Tutoring on births, abortions, adultery, anti-conception practices, homosexuality, bestiality male and female, etc.. issues are dissected from the scientific viewpoint and respectful, the constant aim is to reveal and enrich themselves beyond the myth of the ever richer, and therefore contradictory reality of colonial communities.

sex, wine, and the devil: demography and sexuality in Italian colonization in the RS, Ismael Vanini, semi-naked unknown structural aspects of the colonial past, requiring the need for investigations mightily to correct the traditional narratives, revealing the deep history tend those communities that still largely jealous, its secrets.

[1] See MAESTRI, Mario. The Lords of the Sierra: the Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, 2 ed. revised and enlarged. Passo Fundo: EdiUPF, 2001; WENCZENOVICZ, Jana Thais. Mountains that pierce the clouds! Polish immigration in Golden. RS. [1910-1945]. Passo Fundo: UPF Editora, 2002; Tramontina, Mark J. The social organization of immigrants: the colony of Sao Leopoldo in the pioneering stage. 1824-1850. São Leopoldo: EdUnisinos, 2000.

[2] See Franco, Sergio da Costa. Julio de Castillos and its era. 3rd ed. Porto Alegre: EdUFRGS, 1996. 178 pp.; MAESTRI, Mario. "The meaning of Castile Republic and the Revolution of 1893." CEM. The Works and Days: Essays in Marxist studies. Passo Fundo: EdiUPF, 2000. pp. 179-218.

[3] Fagundes, LK et al. Memory of Rio Grande do Sul (1889-1930). Porto Alegre: EdUFRGS; FEE, 1987; REICHEL, Heloisa J. The textile industry's RS: 1910-1930. Porto Alegre: Open Market / IEL, 1978. 102 pp.; SINGER, Paul. Economic development and urban development. São Paulo: CEN, 1977.

[4] See GOULART, Jorge Salis. The formation of Rio Grande do Sul 3 ed. Porto Alegre: Martins Bookseller, 1978. 208 pp.

[5] See Antonacci, Maria Antonieta. RS: the opposition & the Revolution of 1923. Porto Alegre: Open Market, 1981.

[6] See MAESTRI, Candreva Mario & Luigi. Antonio Gramsci: Life and Work of a communist revolutionary. New York: Popular Expression, 2001.

[7] See Iotti, Luiza Horn. The look of power: the Italian immigration in RS, from 1875 to 1914, through the consular reports. Caxias do Sul: EdUCS, 1996. 165 pp.; MAESTRI, Mario. "The fascist action in the colonial region Gaucho." Journal RS, Porto Alegre, 19-20 November 1994. p.3.

[8] See cinquantenario Colonizzazione della Stato Italiana nel Rio Grande del Sud Porto Alegre: Globo, 1925. Vol 2 pp 446 and 495.

[9] "Nel orgoglio nobile che i rises vostro minds, and stop to contemplate the results of the long and persistent effort, I see the sign of noble lineage that imprinted a 'footprint imperishable in the history of Peoples. "Mussolini, Benito." Italians of Rio Grande do Sul. "Cinquantenaire [. ..]. Ob.cit.

p. 19 [10] "Brazil could not, of course, choose the best immigrants, for both feature lavoratiri savers and tenacious, with respect to both the sober authorities [...] . GOBATO, Celeste. "The Italian farmer and his contribution in the development of riograndense. Cinquatenario [...]. Ob.cit. p. 196.

[11]" With these admirable qualities of physical health and moral, with their strong capacity work, tenacity and intelligence initiative, indeed no wonder that does not raise the Italian settlers have been unable, in the economic field, soperba work, ensuring them and their descendants enviable prosperity to the land and giving them a home high contribution to progress. "Trudi, Francisco de Leonardo." The influence ethnic, social and economic life of Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul. "Cinquantenaire [...]. Ob.cit. p.250.

[12 ] Cf "Priests italinani preceding emigration." "The spiritual life in the Italian colonies of the State", "Opera in the Italian congregations of priests and religious progress in the development of art education nello Stato and dell'assistenza. "cinquantenario [...]." Ob.cit. pp. 46-192.

[13]. See HART, Amado Luiz. The historical relations between Brazil and Italy: role of diplomacy. Brasília: UNB Saint Paul, Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1992. 261 pp.; Seitenfus, Ricardo Antonio Silva. Getulio Vargas's Brazil: And the formation of blocks: 1930-1942. The process of involvement in Brazil World War II. São Paulo: CEN; INL, Fundação Pró-Memória, 1985.

[14] See FONSECA, Pedro Vargas CD: capitalism under construction. 1906-1954. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1989. 480 pp. ; IANNI, Octavio. state and capitalism: Industrialism and social structure in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Columbia University Press, 1965.

[15] See GIRON, Loraine Slomp. The shadows of littorio: fascism in Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre: rimes, 1994. 175 pp.

[16] See album commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre: Globo, 1950; ANTUNES, Duminiense Paranhos. Documentary history of the city of Caxias do Sul 1875-1950. Commemorate the 75th Anniversary of Colonization. São Leopoldo: Trade and Industry, 1950. pp.299.

[17] ANTUNES. Ob.cit. "Presentation."

[18]. Azevedo, Thales. Italian and Gauchos: the pioneer years of Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre: The Nation / IEL, 1975. 310 pp.

[19] See DE BONI, Luis Alberto. "20 years of work on Italian immigration: A Retrospective." 120 Years of Italian Immigration. CHRONOS. Revista da Universidade de Caxias do Sul, V. 29, No. 1, Jan. / jun. 1996, p. 111.

[20] Azevedo, Thales. [Ear.] Id.ib.

[21] Manfroi, Olivio. The Italian colonization in Rio Grande do Sul: Implications economic, political and cultural. Porto Alegre: Grafosul; State Institute of Paper, 1975. 218 pp;

[22] See FROS, Vitalina Maria & Mioranza, Cyrus. Italian immigration in northeastern Rio Grande do Sul: Processes of formation and evolution of an Italo-Brazilian community. Porto Alegre: Movimento; Caxias do Sul, EdUCS 1975; Italian dialects: a linguistic profile of Italian-Brazilian northeastern Rio Grande do Sul Caxias do Sul: EdUCS, 1983. 525 pp. XXII + il.

[23] See COAST. "Italian Immigration, my passion every day." 120 Years of Italian Immigration. Ob.cit. p. 108.

[24] ITALIAN-BRAZILIAN INSTITUTE FOR STUDIES AND RESEARCH. Italian Immigration: Studies. Proceedings of the I and II Forum Italo-Brazilian Studies. [1975 and 1976]. Porto Alegre: EST; Caxias do Sul, UCS, 1979. 282 pp.

[25] See COSTA, Rovílio. "Italian Immigration, my passion every day." 120 Years of Italian Immigration. CHRONOS. Ob.cit. p. 107.

[26] Manfroi. Colonization [...]. Ob.cit. p. 8.

[27] id.ib. p. 157.

[28] See CARBONI, Florence & MAESTRI, Mario. Mi son talian, Grassie Dio! Globalisation, nationality, ethnic identity and linguistic irredentism in RCI RS. Passo Fundo: EdUPF, 1999. 75 pp.

[29]. Luzzatto, Darcy Loss. 'L mio paese' l 'è cosi. Porto Alegre: Luzzato, 1987.

[30] See STEDILE, John Peter & FERNANDES, Bernardo Mançano. Brave: La lunga marcia del Movimento Senza Terra del Brasile dal 1984 al 2000. Pistoia: Rete Resch, 2000. 209 pp.

[31] DE BONI. "20 years [...]". Ob.cit. p. 113.

[32] See IANNI, Constantine. Men without peace: Conflict and the scenes of Italian immigration. Rio de Janeiro / Columbia University Press, 1972.

[33] See SANTOS, José Vicente Tavares. Settlers of wine: study of the subordination of the peasant labor to capital. São Paulo: Hucitec, 1978.

[34] See Lazzarotto, Valentine. Poor builders of wealth. Caxias do Sul: EDUCS, 1981.

[35] See MAESTRI, Mario. "History and Literature: Quatrilho. PRAXIS, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Jun-out., 1996 n.7, pp. 40-55.

[36] See GIRON. The shadows of littorio: fascism in RS. Porto Alegre: rimes, 1994; MAESTRI, Mario. "The fascist action in the colonial region Gaucho." Journal RS, Porto Alegre, 19-20 November 1994.

[37] CARBONI, Florence. Eppur si Parlano! Etude d'un cas diachronique de contact linguistique dans le Rio Grande do Sul [Bresil]. Passo Fundo: EdUPF, 2002.

[38] Sganzerla, Claudia Mara. The law of silence: repression and nationalization in New State Guaporé. [1937-1945]. Passo Fundo: UPF Editora, Porto Alegre: EST, 2001.

[39] See CORTEZ, Dils Piccin. Va Odysseus in America: history, historiography and myths of Italian immigrants in Rio Grande do Sul [1875-1914]. Passo Fundo: EdUPF, 2002.

[40] See Pozenato, José Clemente. Quatrilho. 8th ed. Porto Alegre: Open Market, 1995; MAESTRI, Mario. "History and Literature: Quatrilho. PRAXIS, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Jun-out., 1996 n.7, pp. 40-55.


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