Friday, July 17, 2009

What Underwear Is Best For My Body Shape



Initial Considerations

explanatory Try giving reasons to justify the displacement of thousands of beings from one continent to another does not require an immediate response and simple. Implication even greater when it presents itself as the central authors of this plot Polish immigrants. The year 1875 is presented in as many sources as the date of arrival of this group. It is known that both Brazil, such as Poland were willing to carry this great movement called human migration.
This study attempted to text submit reasons that contributed to this displacement, the journey overseas, the legal aspects of immigration, the establishment in national and state land, the social and economic relations as well as the events surrounding this complex process in the course of the nineteenth and twentieth , whose central characters Poles.

1.0 Speaking Immigration
Since the dawn of humanity, man has continuously migrated for economic reasons, natural, political and social issues. Law in 1882, the Brazilian imperial government authorized the sale of state public land to individuals under commitment that promote colonization. In the last decades of the nineteenth century Brazil was heading towards the abolition of slavery and the large farmers were concerned about the specter of shortage of manpower in their farms. As the coffee the main product of the national economy would be bigger the negative impact of such action. The immigration policy is the solution adopted by the Brazilian political power. This had three basic objectives:
replacement of manpower by slave labor, free labor, which occurred at a time when expansion of capitalism worldwide;
settlement and colonization of areas are still virgin, with the possible emergence of clusters of small farmers;
diversification of production structure that would contribute to the country's domestic supply and lessen the gap in the trade balance caused by the large share of food imports.
With the Republic, proclaimed on November 15, 1889, the vacant lands passed to the ownership and control of states of the federation, in accordance with Article 64 of the Federal Constitution of 1891. Due to this fact, colonization and immigration are the responsibility of state governments, now governed by the Constitution itself, under the Federation. In Rio Grande do Sul, the legislation was based on Law No. 28, October 5, 1899, on "Public Lands, Forestry and Colonization" and the Regulation approved by Decree No. 313 of July 4, 1900.
The fact that the States and Union jointly subsidize and assume the company official immigration and colonization, this caused friction and difficulties for the government at various times. For these and other reasons, the state government of Rio Grande do Sul broke in 1914, its agreement with the Union, putting an end to subsidized immigration official in the State (Decree No. 2. 098, 13 July 1914).

2.0 Poland, Poles and Recruiters
The reasons for the Polish emigration were different and profound. In the nineteenth century, like other European countries, Poland was in grave economic crisis, political and social, which led to thousands of individuals to travel to the New World.
Among the main reasons for migratory flow, we can mention the extra manpower in the villages and towns, the high population growth, lack of land for future generations, the lack of land legislation, the exodus rural to the industrial centers due to rural mechanization, political and religious persecution. Undoubtedly the major reason immigration was the possibility to emigrate to a nation where they could become the owner of land.
addition is also the action of the propagandists and recruiters for immigrants who were known as "recruiting agents". These spread through various regions of Poland with the aim of the disenchanted population to emigrate. Spread articles, booklets, brochures and press releases about the exceptional conditions offered by Brazil.
In Poland, as noted, such agents found favorable field work due to the numerous economic problems, politicians - three territorial divides - social and living the Polish population of the season. The kingdom of Poland and Galicia were the regions most felt the effect of the performance of recruiting agents.
In Poland it was almost impossible to become a landowner. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the political and economic power was in the hands of the nobility. The small and middle bourgeoisie progressed with difficulty, while the upper middle classes, linked to the high nobility, quickened his pace, without questioning the existing structure. "The Polish farmer, both from the field Prussian as in other areas, lived in a very hierarchical social system. In a village social classes were blurred and their mobility very hierarchical. "(WACHOVICZ, 1974: 86). Thank you to lease the land, the peasant ceded much of his work as income.

2.1 Poland: economic production and land
a context that blocked the rise of several social segments, the peasant was seen and known as a simple manual power, generating work. His aloofness almost everything that was located outside their village and surroundings - Okoli, supported by the aristocracy and clergy, it hindered the fight by imposing the division of land and land laws.
usually lived in a semi-feudal community, with few opportunities to belong to any other social institutions. The municipality and the parish were his world. Their participation was very limited at first. Restrictive measures that the government did with its participation in the municipal administration was that of passive spectator. (WACHOVICZ, 1974: 86).
Also the small owner found himself in great difficulty. "In the economic area, the situation of Poles became even more excruciating. Property taxes and land were so heavy that the owners had not wherewith to pay, and not to fall in prison, were forced to sell their small property. "(STAWINSKI, 1976: 15). For decades, the Polish economy is grounded in agriculture, especially for some commodities such as potatoes, rye and wheat. The Posmânia and Vorpommern were good examples: it was mainly agricultural regions, with a number of fledgling industries.
The agrarian character of Poland and the lack of land accounts for the fact the vast majority of Poles who left for Brazil to be peasants. "The peasant, hungry for land, which drew their support, comes looking for it where it exists in abundance in America. This is the great aspiration of those who choose Brazil as their new habitat. Ninety percent of those who came to this country are farmers. "(WACHOVICZ, 1974: 27).

2.2 Polish migration and movements
Two main periods characterized the Polish migration to Brazil between 1890 and World War I, appointed by the historiography of "Brazilian fever". The largest wave of Polish immigration to Brazil occurred in the period 1870 to 1914. According to estimates by the early twenties, arrived in Brazil around to 102,196 Polish, distributed by the following time structure:

Table 1 - Poles arrived in Brazil

No. people
Tota l

Source: Kawka, Mariano. The Polish presence in Brazil

The first waves of Poles went to the Parana and Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo also received the Poles, who were scattered by the urban centers and the coffee farms . From 1897 to 1906, fell sharply the number of Polish immigrants, immigrants arrived just in isolation, lured by friends and relatives living in Brazil.
It is noted that the second period begins around 1906, when Brazil, needing cheap labor and large for the construction of roads, railways, notably Sao Paulo - Rio Grande do Sul back to its former policy of providing free passage to those who wanted to immigrate.
Posterior is the period when World War I broke out that significantly disrupted the arrival of Polish immigrants and other sources for Brazil. At the end of the world conflict, the influx Polish was reinstated, but on a smaller scale. As an example for states in his pioneering study on the Poles in Rio Grande do Sul, Edmundo Gardolinski features a total of 27 000 immigrants from the Rio Grande do Sul, causing the colony
s hitherto unoccupied, described below:

Table 2 - Polish immigrants coming to Rio Grande do Sul

No. of families
Alfredo Chaves
New Virginia
Nova Bassano
Monte Veneto
New Rome
Antonio Prado
St. Mark
St. Anthony Patrol

Fnonte: GARDOLONSKI, Edmundo. Polish Immigration and colonization. oAlegre Port: Regional, 1958. p. 12.

bibliographic sources indicate the existence of elements in the Polish colony south of Rio Grande do Conde d'Eu, Line Azevedo Castro, Section I, this region when the Italian immigrants arrived in 1875. The arrival of the Polish group would occur at the same time when the immigrants came the Franco-Swiss, but some months prior to the groups from Italy.

3.0 The Polish presence in Rio Grande do Sul

Most of the emigrants from Poland were poor peasants who had no property in land of origin. In general, had little or no schooling: "Not all immigrants were literate, they resorted to some friends, to write letters on his behalf. In turn, they wrote the show that had only primary education. "(STAWINSKI, 1976: 79). Coming
the region occupied by Prussia, the first Polish immigrants have arrived in Rio Grande do Sul in the second half of the nineteenth century. Bochnia, Brzesko, Krakow, Jarosław, Leżajsk, Przemyśl, Przeworsk, Rzeszów, Sanok, Tarnów, Tarnobrzeg, as well as those which are now on the borders of Ukraine: Bolechów, Chodorow, Czortków Sambor, Stryj, Stanisławów collaborated in sending immigrants Poles to Rio Grande do Sul
Initially they settled in the left margin of the Antas river, in Colonia Santa Teresa, which was limited to the north, with the Eighth Section of the Colony and Alfredo Chaves, south, the region of colonization German.
Already the Poles from the region under Russian rule only began to arrive in Rio Grande do Sul in late 1889. The majority were from Warsaw, Kalisz, Plock area. The initial voyage towards the port of Bremen was made by train via Berlin. However, it is known that the Poles started from various regions of Western Europe, these were installed when the Transportation Companies and the country should have a port.
Crossing the ocean, Bremen and Hamburg to the Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo, it was done in less than 18 days. During the stay in the barracks of immigrants, usually in Flores Island, the families awaited the definition of the region where they would settle. In general, after a week of rest, the journey continued toward their destinations.
The crossing was made mainly for ship-size, steam, or mixed, since from 1840, the boats now sailing vessels were replaced with metal hulls, engines powered by coal. Each vessel carried an average of seven to eight hundred people. There were vessels that have exceeded that number. Among the carriers was Bendazewski Poles & Serra Azul and F. Missler Bremen. (Stolz, 1997: 29-33)
At the beginning of Polish immigration, sea passages were due to the immigrants themselves. After the proclamation of the Republic, the Brazilian government pledged to pay the travel expenses from shipping in European ports to landing on Flores Island in Guanabara Bay. Since 1890, large numbers of Poles went to Brazil, to occupy vacant land in the South
Along the way immigrants were organized from the amount of travelers, available space and the community standards presented daily by the contractor responsible for the crossing. Among the spaces of memory found in most Poles out top refer to the food served on board during the voyage, and the overcrowded ships.
feeding during the crossing, was abundant and, in general, more abundant and rich that known in Poland by the peasants. "During the trip we fed the flesh of two oxen." (Stolz, 1997: 33). The animals were slaughtered, as necessary, during the trip. The meat served to passengers was not usual food of the peasant population of Poland.
The food used to be plentiful, these meals are one of the most anticipated moments during the trip. "On the ship the food was pretty good and quite {...]. Had wafer or biscuit in the morning with coffee. There was no coffee in Poland. At lunch and dinner had potatoes, beef, rice soup or pasta, eggs and other things. Sunday was better, sometimes had wine and fruit droughts. Everything was good. It was bit of a struggle to eat, because I had a lot of people on the ship. "(KRZYSCZAK, 2001. Oral testimony).
In case of disease, the immigrants remained for a longer period of landing space. Previously referred to as attention and care that was sick and not sick rumassem for the colonies, thus preventing the spread to others and contributing to the spread of diseases and epidemics, so common in the European scene. In case of illness
and absolute lack of resources will have an immigrant in the first year of its establishment and diet aid for purchase of medicines and other relief necessary and as may be provided. (Iotti, 2001: 737-738). The transfer
, diplomatic relations, land distribution and other issues related to migration were registered and approved into law, decrees and second paragraphs, in conformity with the federal government. (Decree No. 9081 of November 3, 1911).
The permanence of immigrants in hostels lasted the time needed for customs clearance is carried luggage, disinfection, and when appropriate indication or choice of destination or waiting for transportation to the colony called. It is emphasized that the process of accommodation in the hostel could not exceed a period of eight days, and if extraordinary or force majeure, the decision fell to the Board of Settlement Services.
In case of illness, the newly arrived immigrants were getting medical treatment, medication and diet, being collected from the hostel to the ward when necessary, in the case of temporary illness, and can be removed to hospitals and clinics closer to where the inn had not ways to provide proper treatment. In case of infectious or contagious disease or when required improved treatment, the greater concern was immediately made and the isolation of the sick. (Decree No. 9081 of November 3, 1911).
while immigrants generally remained in hostels, they were subject to the measures of order, cleanliness and discipline in public agencies. It appears that the increased stiffness in meeting the standards in effect in favor of morality, health and safety conditions of the establishment was registered in the hostel of Rio de Janeiro - called Hostal Flores Island. Also in this hostel
Polish immigrants have benefited from the provision of service three doctors providing medical and surgical services, a specialist in eye disease, a pharmacist, a pharmacy and practical work for one or more midwives, according to the needs currents around the barracks on the island of Flores. (Iotti, 2001: 564).

3.1 Colonization and Settlement

Several problems arose at the beginning of colonial settlement activities of Polish immigrants. Among the most frequently cited include the trip made up of large lots colonial centers because of the difficulty that had the means of transport against the geographical condition. The Polish immigrant proceeded from a different reality of rural and urban areas. In general, living in their rural habitat relatively urbanized, integrated in the European context. To emigrate to New South Wales, before I World War, roads, railways and various means of transport were common in several regions of Poland.
The journey toward the new property began with the loading of bags on mules or back. To tame horses reserved for women and young children. Generally, men and children followed him on foot and took turns in most animals. Immigrants follow the journey in Indian file, forward, was responsible for the group, accompanied by an official of the colonial enterprise. He stopped to lunch and for the rest of men and animals. The areas under the Poles, as noted, there was rarely known as the road on Polish soil, and the journey made by open bites in the bush. Not infrequently, it needed to pave the way with the aid of a machete and expressive physical effort. (WENCZENOVICZ, 2002: Chapter IV)
The accommodation of immigrants in hostels and shacks, while not being used to their plot also brought difficulties for immigrants and colonizing companies. It was difficult to accommodate such large numbers of people with different dialects and customs, in little space. For example, we may mention the colonies and Ijuí Erechim of Boa Vista, where immigrants were arranged in a shed, waiting for the designation of the lots, not always considering their linguistic differences and conditions physical - hot and airless -. Germans, Italians, Jews and Poles shared the same space.
When installing the lot colonial building of the residence was among the most important to start the venture. In general, it was the settler who built his house, using materials found on the property: clay, wood, thatch and stone. The nails, sometimes used by German and Italian immigrants, were not used in Polish architecture. The Poles used the system mainly wooden fittings - blockhouse - used in Poland for several centuries, particularly in rural areas.
Immigrants were not demanding when it came housing since the housing situation in Poland was difficult. "The houses were small and poorly ventilated. Before emigrating, many peasants lived in houses leased. Many houses - trawler - were uncomfortable, no sanitation, resembling the medieval huts. "(TEMPSKI 1971: 309-313).
Not all families were directed to the same region. Those who drove to the Rio Grande do Sul were still vapor to Porto Alegre and Rio Grande, where they rested for a few days. There they were informed about the region where they settled. Generally, continued, then by boat to the port of St. John of Montenegro, where occurred distribution and dispersal of Polish immigrants by different localities of Rio Grande do Sul After the Polish families departed, through different pathways, in carts, on horseback or on foot, carrying luggage and children.
Over the next few years, numerous nuclei Poles, as San Marcos de Cima da Serra (municipality of Francisco de Paula), New Rome and Castro Alves (municipality of Antônio Prado); Lines Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth ( Veranópolis municipalities and New Silver). After initial problems
resolve burning issues, such as difficulties with establishing the low quality of the land (rugged and rocky) vicinal poor lines of communication that made transport expensive and poor, the immigrants encountered a new problem: the lack of land to their children.
From the twentieth century, the small size of the colonies (12.5 ha.) Meant that the Poles, faced again with the lack of land, seek new sources of colonial fish in the river and the Great Barn (Erechim ) - New Colony. The Poles took the opportunity to sell their land when the Italians of New Trent (Flores da Cunha) were in the same situation, without colonial lots for their children newlyweds. "In turn, the new Italian couples were starting to question Batch colonial life that is no different from their parents, relatives and friends. "(STAWINKI, 1976: 74).
In the first decade of the twentieth century, began a new wave of migration into the Polish Upper Uruguay, north of Rio Grande do Sul "The Upper Uruguay and the Middle Plateau was divided into 'colonies' or rural lots of 250 000 m2 (25ha.). The State Government has facilitated the payment, giving each family a loan of 500 mil-reis, that this amount should be recovered in small installments and in the long term. The property title of the lot was granted to settlers after the coverage of that debt to the state. Most of the settlers managed to open up lots, working in road construction.
In general, the colonies of Upper and Middle Plateau Uruguay were divided into lots and rural - settlements - 250,000 m2. The price of each lot was around 500 thousand reis. The state government has financed the purchase, the immigrant must pay for the land in installments. The debt originated from the colonial land values, derived from the aid and fines resulting from the delay of portions of the debt. If full payment of the debt occurred in the colonial period in the second year of establishment, the owner would get a 12% reduction on the value of the colonial debt. (CASSOL, 1979: 30). The organization
of new nuclei of Polish settlers took place under the process known as the "Old Colony". In general, each community was composed of thirty or forty families. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul there are several towns and districts have a significant presence of nuclei Poles. Among them we can mention: Rosemary Alpestre, Aratiba, Aurea, Baron Cotegipe Candido Godoy, capoeristas, Carlos Gomes, Erechim Great Herbal, Frederico Westphalen, Gaurama, Getulio Vargas Giruá, Horizontina, Iraí, Marcelino Ramos, Paim Filho , Palms Mission, Planalto, Porto Lucena, Santa Rosa, Seberi, Three May Tucunduva and Viaducts.
Also, please note that from 1911 to 1912, and especially after World War I, thousands of Polish farmers emigrated from Poland to the New and Old Colony of New South Wales which contributed to the increase in population of European origin .
Even with the possibility of taking another batch of new colonial region, was not allowed under the current law, immigrants who occupy the lots that have not been legally granted. The inauguration was also carried out only after the culture for more than six months.
The colonial possession of the lot were two ways to receive the title, provisional and definitive. Provisional titles were delivered to the immigrant past and in 90 days after its location and have made the preparation of land for cultivation. But the final was issued when the dealer had made full payment of the debt to the State and who shall have full and comprehensive settlement of the title.
Most immigrants who occupied the geographical space in New Colonies won the first provisional and long after the final. Due to geographical difficulties and cultivating the soil, as already noted, there are several cases of debt negotiation colonial aspect that caused the outright lead a period higher to be handed to the owner.
regions that were intended to Polish immigrants in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were rugged and difficult to access because the best land had been occupied by the Germans, Jews and Italians. Among many examples one can cite the City of Golden, located in the northern state, where their lands were classified by the State Land Inspectorate, mostly low-quality production and the presence of various landforms. (WENCZENOVICZ, 2001: 112).
But amid the difficulties, what most interested them, pushing the restart of this life, was the possibility of becoming owners. It is known that poor quality of the land, essentially a peasant group, reflected in the social configuration of the Polish immigrants who occupied space in virtually all the territory of the State of Rio Grande do Sul
denote this specific economic and social stigma and prejudice experienced by immigrants Poles from the moment of its insertion in the southern migration policy. Assignments signal the cultural and social segregation process of this group, contrasting with the other flows.
The fact that the Poles emigrate to a country dominated politically, economically and culturally caused them to be seen as' without Polish flag. " Here they are colonial settlers in the nuclei Positivist and administered by the State, for the positivists, Poland was at a level below that of Germany and Italy. In addition to the context of the numerous difficulties encountered during installation of the colonial core, where there were several confrontations between officials of the Inspectorate General for Lands and Polish immigrants. (GRITTI, 2004: 209-210).

3.2 Smallholders in colonial

In colonial estate worked all family members. In the early years had to overcome the difficulties imposed by the environment, because they were not accustomed to the deforestation and burning. Roots and stumps represented another difficulty. There was also a lack of resources to survive and to hire someone for more specialized tasks such as tree felling.
Lot colonial family and worked as a production unit, and that success depended on the good performance of family. Women's work extended beyond the boundaries of home and raising children. She was a farm worker in the barn and chicken coop in the garden. Children were recruited for the most varied tasks. They went to the farm, tending the animals and helped them with housework. In the properties
dominated polyculture and livestock, which usually covered birds, pigs, some cattle and horses to pull the plow and cart. The logic of production of the settler was the self-sufficiency. The surplus produced was intended for sale to local or regional dealer. Some
harvested products were destined for processing within an incipient process of industrialization legacy of Poland. Noteworthy are the stills, who used the cane sugar mills that produce corn flour and wheat and fruits that turned into pulp and jellies.
known to the colonists obeyed, the options of planting, the fluctuations of market, always trying to engage in a culture of greater profitability. The advantage of the colonists was that this was an annual or biennial, to face times of crisis.
The difficulties imposed by the relief entailed much work and constituted an obstacle to the rise of financial survival of the Polish immigrants of the family. Soil acidity, associated with lack of water and let the ants attack settler in the miserable state in most of the colonial core. However, this scenario is that this group develops activities aimed at building and installation of buildings that allowed survival in South riograndense soil. (WENCZENOVICZ, 2002: Chapter V and VI).
In general, the average residence four by six meters and was covered with small boards made of wood. The house consisted of one or two rooms, kitchen and bedroom with no floor, with dirt floors. The immigrants slept on beds brought from Poland or bunks built for them. The smoke and the bad conditions of hygiene were common in these homes decreased. The kitchen was separated from rooms to isolate the environment from the ashes, smoke, odors and soot. This logic of construction was also customary in Italian colonial zone. In general, the same production conditions, the same materials, the same technical resources available in the environment has triggered a major facility with respect to housing Colonial.
Families not only built their own homes as well as your mobile and manufactured garments. In the furniture were banks, table, wardrobe and meals, not always, the closet. The clothes were hung on nails fixed to the walls of the rooms. In these pieces the predominant use of wood. (WENCZENOVICZ, 2002: 87).
In the house, other properties owned buildings, two of them very important: the shed and animal shelter. The ease of access to a water supply point was decisive in the location of the house, shed, shelter animals and the bathroom.
close to the residence, immigrants built the shed, utility varied. Served as a tank farm implements, workshop, and on rainy days, the place for children to play. As in the Italian colonial area, the shed was erected without building a neat finish, especially to store grain.
Initially the animals were enclosed by fences bushes, thorns and branches intertwined. Later came the fences taipas wood and stone, an element abundant in regions occupied by Polish immigrants, eliminating the aesthetic. There was great concern for the health and safety of animals - birds, cattle, goats, mules and pigs - as served in the agricultural and read as a source of food protein.
Over time, the troughs appeared to salt the animals, which could receive two covers water, and some warehouses to store grain, fodder and firewood. If possible, he built up a water cooler, allowing the animal access to water supply in the open area reserved for the creation of same, reducing the work of the settler to lead them to quench their thirst. Some properties had
apiaries, stills, hutches and small workshops. Also close to home, were intended for planting areas and orchard. In the vegetable garden is planted vegetables. Fruit trees could be spread throughout the property. Even though the preference was for meat due to shortage of this product in Poland, legumes and vegetables were widely consumed.
With the improved facilities, resolved the concern for personal hygiene habits. For the construction of the first colonial bathrooms, was soaking up the possibility of slower and calmer. Until then, the stream or river served as a large bath and bushes, bathrooms.
With the expansion of the built environment is observed that the space designated for the implementation of hygiene and physical needs have come to occupy the same place but with different architectural features. "A house of one by two meters divided in half, serving a portion to the colonial toilet, a database containing over a deep hole, and the other party to the shower colonial, which consisted of a can of kerosene and suspended perforated leather cord raw. "(Weiss, 1949: 56).
The bowl and the tank served to the individual hygiene. In the morning, was made morning hygiene, washing your face and hands, at noon, the operation was repeated by washing the feet also. At night, the bathroom was longer and more rigorous because of the many menial activities carried out during the day. Generally, children were washed with hot water and soap too. Wash the head of the task was Saturday. In summer the body cleansing was more systematic, due to high temperature. (WENCZENOVICZ, 2002: 89). Unlike
experienced social constitution of Poland, where they lived in small villages, with small gores of land to cultivate and little space in homes, the settlers in Brazil were faced with large tracts unoccupied. The process of colonization and settlement in colonial isolated lots, separating families, meant that they provide space for living together: school and church.

3.3 Education and religion for Poles

The geographic location of most of the cores consist mainly of Polish immigrants, forced them into isolation, as well as type economic activity, almost exclusively agricultural, ordered its closure in part to penetration of the national culture through education.
whereas most immigrants could not read or write, was not required to polish, for entry into farming, any level of knowledge, practice or technical field. The activity was due to the type of productive organization of the colony, whose base was the manpower family. From infancy, children helped their parents in farming, not requiring lifelong learning and targeted.
Initially, the Poles saw the school as a way to educate their children, as this was not regarded as necessary for social advancement. The economic activity did not demand any kind of preparation that the school could provide.
The first classes took place in the collective space, chapel or as the residence of the teacher, the second hit of the parties involved - parents and teachers. Classes were held initially in Polish. The task was performed by a settler who knew how to write, read and mastered the four arithmetic operations. The payment could be in colonial genres. The teacher usually took other positions in the community as directed by the choir, religious meetings, the organizer of recreational and festive activities or by counsel.
Books were rare pieces. There were some gems that accompanied immigrants from Poland to Brazil. This function had more decorative than instructive. The school level depended on the skills and technical training of teachers, as well as the development and involvement of students.
Until the nationalization, which occurred in 1938, virtually all schools of nuclei Poles, were bilingual and fulltime. The school calendar and schedule were determined by the parents regarding the harvesting season. This attitude should be spent viewing the maintenance of children in school and the absence of an element in the production chain. (GARDOLINSKI, 1976)
The clergy also influenced education in the colonies. The initial push to create colonial schools encouraged by religious Catholics, demonstrated the continuing submission of the group, since leaving an environment manor, where his initiative was decreased, created his first areas of socialization, with characteristics of the Old World.
As it turned out, the colonial school served to take a considerable layer of illiteracy in the population of Polish immigrants. However, only with the economic development of the colonies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the consequent integration into the regional economy and state, that education began acting as an essential and indispensable to immigrants.
initiative and desire to build a religious space in each colonial core, was linked inextricably to the overwhelming preponderance of peasant element in the mental makeup of the Catholic Polish immigrant. The parish was in Poland of the nineteenth century, the only space where the polish had the opportunity to participate, holding key positions in local parish activities or as part of religious associations.
The adoption of Christianity by the Roman Catholic Poland, occurred in the late X. The decision came out of the political season, because this bond would be the link between Poland with the rest of Western Europe, depriving the German princes convenient pretext making constant attacks by the Poles were in majority pagan. With the Christianization of the empire's Polish political position was strengthened. This also benefited the international scene against the other empires and especially with their neighbors who were still pagans. (WACHOVICZ, 1974: 24).
The adoption of Catholicism to derive from an agreement, accounted for the leading layers a significant improvement in economic and social condition, causing the majority of the population consists of peasants or proletarians, and traders to form a pattern of behavior that the over the centuries were met with great brand of Polish immigrant: the Catholic religion.
should be noted that the condition imposed on the Polish immigrant, primarily for the deeply religious Catholic elements. The clergy allied to the nobility appeared to be the simple man of the field as your browser, then both the junction of which figured in two factors: the nobility broadened its assets by war, looting, while the church grew with the collections / donations and both obtained positive results due to mental and cultural domination by the religious domain.
Even if the Catholic religion on national soil was treated in the same manner as was the gentleman in Poland, saw the chapel / church as a convergence center and socializing. Sacred space assigned to the celebrations and other religious activities, has acquired a connotation, more broadly. The attendance at religious places set up an escape from everyday life.
While the predominant ideas of the mental structure that prevails in Polish villages, obedience to the religious representative was total. This obedience of the peasants went beyond the boundaries of the continuing spiritual and temporal.

4.0 Considers tions Finals

The arrival of immigrants to Brazil, considered the presence of the Portuguese colonial masters of the country - takes place from the opening of ports to friendly nations (1808) and the very independence of the country should also remember that before quoting the volunteer population displacements during the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries millions of blacks were forced to cross the Atlantic to Brazil as labor, slave labor. In this scenario, that Brazil's emperors sought to attract immigrants to various regions, offering favorable conditions for the maintenance of colonial plots.
Through European immigrants tried to form a population of small farmers who supply the major cities in foodstuff, occupy the empty spaces, replacing manpower and enslaved, easing tensions between the elites and the layers lower.
It is known that the displacement of Polish immigrants to Brazil and south of the country are included throughout the nineteenth century European immigration. Polish immigrants to fit the small and distant property. Occupied the remote and rugged areas to develop their small colonial properties. Many colonial core failed, others remained a condition of abandonment. Those who were far from large centers have struggled to subsistence, creating space for the disorders, the difficult social conditions in some areas and prejudice.


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  12. MAESTRI, Mario & CARBONI, Florence. Italian roots in Rio Grande do Sul (1875-1975). Passo Fundo: Ediupf, 2000.
  13. MARMILICZ, Paulo Tomaz . The former colony of Polish Guarani Missions and their current relationships: reflection on the peasant guaraniense, its historical background, their economic achievements and challenges - 1891-1996. Ijuí: Polychromy 1996.
  14. MODTKOWSKI, Luis Isidoro. colonization in Polish Golden - In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil-1, Poland Seminary. Curitiba, 1998.
  16. ROUSSEAU, Jean-Jacques. Considerations on the Government of Poland and its reform designed. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1982. Translation, and presentation notes Salinas Luiz Roberto Fortes.
  17. Smola, Krzysztof & DEMBICZ, Andrej. The Polish presence in Latin America. Itineraries Poles in Latin America. CESL: Center for Latin American Studies. Warsaw: Warsaw University, 1996.
  18. STAWINSKI, Albert Victor. Beginnings of Polish immigration in Rio Grande do Sul (1875-1975). Porto Alegre: EST / UCS. Caxias do Sul, 1976.
  19. Stolz, Roger. Letters of immigrants. Porto Alegre: EST Edições, 1997.
  20. TEMPSKI, Edwin . Who is the Polish? Special Bulletin of the Historical, Geographical and Ethnographic Paranaense, Curitiba, 1971.
  21. Wachowicz, Ruy Christovam. The Polish peasant - roots in medieval mentality emerging. Thesis contest to Teaching Freedom. Discipline of Medieval History. Federal University of Parana. Curitiba, 1974.
  22. WAIBEL, Leo . Principles of European colonization in Brazil. Journal of Geography, 1949. XI, No. 2.
  23. WEISS, John . Settlers in the Jungle. Settlers in the Jungle. Migrants as farmers. Rio de Janeiro: Author's edition, 1949.
  24. WENCZENOVICZ, Jana Thais. Mountains that pierce the clouds! Polish Immigration in Golden (1910-1945). Passo Fundo: EDIUPF, 2002.
  25. WONSOWSKI John Ladislaus. In big hole into rainforest river Antas: nucleus of Polish immigrants from the former colony Alfredo Chaves (1890). Translation and notes by Albert Victor Stawinski. Porto Alegre: EST / UCS, 1976.

deponent ORAL:

  1. KESSLER, Vicente. oral testimony, on September 10, 2003. Golden.
  2. KRZYSCZAK, Wenceslao. oral testimony, on January 8, 2001, San Sebastian Line, Golden.


Ship Polish immigrants

Mill Joao Modtkowski and ingenuity - 1923


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